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Study Guides for Psychology Students

Details: Theories (Studies) In psychology, theories are used to provide a model for understanding and predicting various aspects of human thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Erik Erikson Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Jean Piaget (Stages and Theory) Sigmund Freud.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Simply Psychology

Details: Bloom’s Taxonomy is a hierarchical model that categorizes learning objectives into varying levels of complexity, from basic knowledge and comprehension to advanced evaluation and creation. Bloom’s Taxonomy was originally published in 1956, and the Taxonomy was modified each year for 16 years after it was first published.

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Jean Piaget's Theory and Stages of Cognitive Development

Details: For example, a review of primary education by the UK government in 1966 was based strongly on Piaget’s theory. The result of this review led to the publication of the Plowden report (1967). Discovery learning – the idea that children learn best through doing and actively exploring - was seen as central to the transformation of the primary

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Lev Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory Simply Psychology

Details: Unlike Piaget's notion that childrens' development must necessarily precede their learning, Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function" (1978, p. 90).

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Erik Erikson Psychosocial Stages Simply Psychology

Details: In response to role confusion or identity crisis, an adolescent may begin to experiment with different lifestyles (e.g., work, education or political activities). Also pressuring someone into an identity can result in rebellion in the form of establishing a …

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Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Simply Psychology

Details: Individualized education has typically been reserved for the wealthy and others who could afford to hire tutors to address individual students’ needs. Technology has now made it possible for more people to access a variety of teachings and assessments depending on their needs.

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Self-Determination Theory Simply Psychology

Details: Research on self-determination theory has shown the importance of the three basic needs in real-world settings, such as the workplace, education, and sports. In the Classroom Researchers have found that students show a greater intrinsic motivation towards learning when teachers encourage a culture of autonomy in the classroom (Niemiec & Ryan

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Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development Simply Psychology

Details: Kohlberg's theory proposes that there are three levels of moral development, with each level split into two stages. Kohlberg suggested that people move through these stages in a fixed order, and that moral understanding is linked to cognitive development.The three levels of moral reasoning include preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.

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Attachment Styles Simply Psychology

Details: Attachment is defined as a “lasting psychological connectedness between human beings” (Bowlby, 1969), and may be considered interchangeable with concepts such as “affectional bond” and “emotional bond.”. A human being’s first attachment is often established during infancy with the primary caregiver; however, it must be noted that

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Formal Operational Stage Simply Psychology

Details: Formal Operational Stage. By Dr. Saul McLeod, published 2010. The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve and lasts into adulthood. As adolescents enter this stage, they gain the ability to think in an abstract manner by manipulating ideas in their head, without any dependence on concrete manipulation (Inhelder & Piaget, 1958).

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Little Albert Experiment Simply Psychology

Details: The Little Albert Experiment demonstrated that classical conditioning could be used to create a phobia. A phobia is an irrational fear, that is out of proportion to the danger. In this experiment, a previously unafraid baby was conditioned to become afraid of a rat. Over the next few weeks and months, Little Albert was observed and ten days

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Freud's 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development Simply

Details: Freud's 5 Psychosexual Stages. Oral Stage (Birth to 1 year) Anal Stage (1 to 3 years) Phallic Stage (3 to 6 years) Latency Stage (6 to puberty) Genital Stage (puberty to adult) Freud (1905) believed that life was built round tension and pleasure. Freud also believed that all tension was due to the build-up of libido (sexual energy) and that all

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What is the Hawthorne Effect

Details: Education A study that investigated the impact of awareness of experimentation on pupil performance (based on direct and indirect cues) revealed that the Hawthorne effect is either nonexistent in children between grades 3 and 9, was not evoked by the intended cues, or was not sufficiently strong to alter the results of the experiment

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Anna Freud Biography and Contributions to Psychology

Details: Anna Freud finished her education at Cottage Lyceum in Vienna in 1912 while uncertain of her career. Therefore, she moved to England after two years to improve her English, but her time there was cut short due to World War I, resulting in her return to Vienna where she began to teach at her alma mater in 1917 (Sigmund Freud Museum).

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Amygdala Function and Location Simply Psychology

Details: The amygdala is a complex structure of cells nestled in the middle of the brain, adjacent to the hippocampus (which is associated with memory formation). The amygdala is primarily involved in the processing of emotions and memories associated with fear. The amygdala is considered to be a part of the limbic system within the brain and is key to

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Independent and Dependent Variables Definitions

Details: The independent variable is the variable the experimenter manipulates or changes, and is assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent variable. For example, allocating participants to either drug or placebo conditions (independent variable) in order to measure any changes in the intensity of their anxiety (dependent variable).

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APA Title Page (Cover Page) Format, Example, Template

Details: Formatting an APA title page. Note: All text on the title page should be double-spaced and typed in either 12-point, Times New Roman font. In the 7th edition, APA increaded the flexibility regarding font options: which now include Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode 10, Times New Roman 12, or …

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Stanford Prison Experiment Simply Psychology

Details: 24 men judged to be the most physically & mentally stable, the most mature, & the least involved in antisocial behaviors were chosen to participate. The participants did not know each other prior to the study and were paid $15 per day to take part in the experiment. …

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John Bowlby Maternal Deprivation Theory Simply Psychology

Details: Indeed, other external variables, such as family conflict, parental income, education, etc. may have affected the behavior of the 44 thieves, and not, as concluded, the disruption of the attachment bond. Thus, as Rutter (1972) pointed out, Bowlby’s conclusions were …

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Humanistic Approach Simply Psychology

Details: Education. Self-worth. Strengths. Shifted the focus of behavior to the individual / whole person rather than the unconscious mind, genes, observable behavior etc. Real life applications (e.g., therapy) Humanistic psychology satisfies most people's idea of what being human means because it values personal ideals and self-fulfillment.

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Sympathetic Nervous System Functions Simply Psychology

Details: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system which is involved in regulating autonomic processes. The sympathetic nervous system is involved in preparing the body for stress-related activities, and it slows bodily processes that are less important in emergencies such as digestion.

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Behaviorism Simply Psychology

Details: Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning which states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment through a process called conditioning. Thus, behavior is simply a response to environmental stimuli. Behaviorism is only concerned with observable stimulus-response behaviors, as they can be

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Parasympathetic Nervous System Functions Simply Psychology

Details: About the Author. Olivia Guy-Evans obtained her undergraduate degree in Educational Psychology at Edge Hill University in 2015. She then received her master’s degree in Psychology of Education from the University of Bristol in 2019. Olivia has been working as a support worker for adults with learning disabilities in Bristol for the last four years.

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Cognitive Dissonance Theory Simply Psychology

Details: Festinger's (1957) cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and behavior in harmony and avoid disharmony (or dissonance). This is known as the principle of cognitive consistency. When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the

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Social Identity Theory Simply Psychology

Details: Social identity is a person’s sense of who they are based on their group membership (s). Tajfel (1979) proposed that the groups (e.g. social class, family, football team etc.) which people belonged to were an important source of pride and self-esteem. Groups give us a sense of social identity: a sense of belonging to the social world.

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Myelin Sheath: What They Are, Their Function, & Damage

Details: The Function and Damage of Nerve Insulation. Myelin sheath is a substance which is found on neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Myelin sheath is the protective layer that wraps around the axons of neurons to aid in insulating the neurons, and to increase the number of electrical signals being

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Reductionism: Definition and Examples Simply Psychology

Details: Also, language can be reduced to structures in the brain, e.g. Broca’s area, Wernicke’s area (but holism could state: influence of family, education, social class on language). Another example of biological reductionism is aggression – e.g. testosterone levels.

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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Parts and Function

Details: The PNS is all the nerves that branch out from the CNS components and extend to other parts of the body – to the sense organs, muscles, and glands. The PNS connects the CNS to the rest of the body. The primary function of the peripheral nervous system is to connect the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body and the external environment.

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